Τεχνική ποδηλασίας

Cycling Coaching

Τεχνική ποδηλασίας

Για τους περισσότερους αθλητές η έννοια της τεχνική στην ποδηλασία συνδέεται με έννοιες όπως να ξέρει κάποιος να στρίβει σωστά, να ξέρει να κάνει ορθοπέταλο, να κατεβαίνει σωστά στις κατηφόρες. Σπάνια αναφερόμαστε στην τεχνική του πεταλαρίσματος που όπως είναι εύκολα κατανοητό είναι το πιο σημαντικό.

Ας πάρουμε τα πράγματα από την αρχή. Είναι απαραίτητο να κατανοήσουμε ότι κατά την διάρκεια της ποδηλασίας παράγουμε ενέργεια με μία κυκλική κίνηση των ποδιών.

Ο ποδηλάτης/ τριαθλητής ασκεί δυνάμεις στα πετάλια. Κάθε δύναμη που ασκείται μπορείς να αναλυθεί  σε δύο συνιστώσες, μία εφαπτόμενη στην κυκλική μας κίνηση και μία με κατεύθυνση το κέντρο της κυκλικής κίνησης των πεταλιών.

Κάθε φορά που ασκούμε μία δύναμη πρέπει να κατανοήσουμε ότι μόνο η εφαπτόμενη στο κύκλο χρησιμοποιείται για την προώθησή μας διαμέσου του ποδηλάτου και ότι η συνιστώσα με κατεύθυνση το κέντρο του κύκλου απλά είναι σπατάλη ενέργειας. Έχοντας ως αρχή το παραπάνω είναι σαφές ότι πρέπει να προσπαθήσουμε να  κατευθύνουμε τις δυνάμεις που ασκούμε στα πετάλια ώστε να είναι εφαπτόμενες στον κύκλο. Το ερώτημα όμως είναι σε ποια σημεία της κυκλικής κίνησης είναι εφικτό κάτι τέτοιο και χρησιμοποιώντας ποιες μυικές ομάδες;

Το πρόβλημα είναι σύνθετο και σε κάθε ποδηλατική περίσταση (π.χ. ατομική χρονομέτρηση, ανηφόρες, ορθοπέταλο,  καθιστός στο γκρουπ, σπριντ τερματισμού κ.λ.π) χρειάζεται μία διαφορετική και πιο ειδικευμένη προσέγγιση. Εμείς προσπαθούμε με πολύ απλά λόγια να προβάλλουμε ένα ζήτημα, που δεν έχει την προβολή που θα έπρεπε ίσως γιατί απαιτούνται αρκετές γνώσεις μηχανικής/ φυσικής.

Είναι απαραίτητο να διευκρινιστεί ότι σε ένα απλό άρθρο δεν μπορούμε να αναλύσουμε ένα τόσο σύνθετο ζήτημα ούτε μπορούμε να έχουμε μία ολοκληρωμένη προσέγγιση. Εμείς απλά προσπαθούμε να θέσουμε προβληματισμούς για κάτι που πιστεύουμε ότι θα έπρεπε προπονητές και αθλητές να ασχολούνται περισσότερο.

Για να βοηθήσουν οι προπονητές τους αθλητές να κατανοήσουν και να απλοποιήσουν τις κινήσεις των ποδιών τους έχουν προτείνει διάφορα μοντέλα. Εμείς θα αναφερθούμε στην λεγόμενη κυκλική προσέγγιση. 

Οι περισσότεροι προπονητές προτείνουν στους αθλητές τους να χωρίσουν νοητικά την κυκλική κίνηση σε 4 τεταρτημόρια και σε καθένα από αυτά να έχουν μία διαφορετική τακτική.

Έτσι στο πρώτο (από 12 έως 3 εάν χωρίσουμε την κυκλική κίνηση όπως είναι και οι δείκτες του ρολογιού) ασκούνται δυνάμεις προς τα κάτω στο δεύτερο  (3-6) προς τα κάτω και πίσω, στο τρίτο προς τα πίσω και πάνω και στο τέταρτο προς τα πάνω.

Μία διαφορετική και σίγουρο πιο σωστή προσέγγιση είναι να σπρώχνουμε προς τα κάτω από το 1 έως το 5, να τραβούμε προς τα πίσω από το 5 έως το 7 και προς τα πάνω από το 7έως το 11.

Για να μπορέσουμε να βελτιώσουμε την τεχνική μας χρειάζεται να κάνουμε σε κάθε προπόνηση, ιδίως στο προπονητήριο, σχετικές ασκήσεις καθώς και κάθε φορά που κάνουμε προπόνηση να ελέγχουμε συνειδητά την τεχνική μας. Έτσι έχοντας μία πιο ολιστική προσέγγιση η κάθε προπόνηση θα συμβάλλει και στην βελτίωση της τεχνικής μας και στην βελτίωση της ενεργειακής μας οικονομίας στην ποδηλασία.

Κείμενο : Γιάννης Ψαρέλης (Tri NZ Level 2 Accredited Coach, ASCA Level 2 Certified Coach, ITCA Certified Coach)- Συντακτική Ομάδα TriathlonWorld & Triathlon.gr -Προπονητική ομάδα Smart Sport (Email :info@triathlonworld.gr)

O Γιάννης Ψαρέλης γεννήθηκε το 1969 στην Αθήνα. Από το 1978 ασχολείται με τον αθλητισμό. Είναι αναγνωρισμένος προπονητής τριάθλου από την Ironman και Level 3 προπονητής τριάθλου από την εθνική Ομοσπονδία της Νεας Ζηλανδίας (με το καλύτερο σύστημα διαβίου εκπαίδευσης προπονητών), πιστοποιημένος δάσκαλος κολύμβησης (Teacher ID: 15843) από τον Σύνδεσμο Προπονητών Κολύμβησης της Αυστραλίας καθώς και Αργυρού Επιπέδου Διεθνής προπονητής από τον ίδιο σύνδεσμο (ASCTA International Silver :0534). Επίσης, είναι πιστοποιημένος προπονητής κολύμβησης από τον Σύνδεσμο Προπονητών κολύμβησης των ΗΠΑ επιπέδου 4:5 (ASCA Level 4:5). Συνολικά έχει συμμετάσχει σε περισσότερους από 200 αγώνες τριάθλου και multistports και σε περισσότερους από 150 αγώνες τρεξίματος εκτός σταδίου. Έχει διατελέσει μέλος της Ολομέλειας της Ελληνικής Ολυμπιακής Επιτροπής, Διοικητικός Διευθυντής στην Διεθνή Ολυμπιακή Ακαδημία, Γενικός Γραμματέας στην Ελληνική Ομοσπονδία Τριάθλου, Διευθυντής Αθλήματος στην ΟΕΟΑ Αθήνα 2004 κ.λπ. Έχει επίσης εμπνευστεί και διατελέσει Αθλητικός Διευθυντής του Κέντρου Υψηλού Αθλητισμού (Sports Excellence). Σπουδές: Χημεία (ΕΚΠΑ), ΜΒΑ (ΟΠΑ), Μεταπτυχιακό στην Αθλητική Διοίκηση (MSc,Lyon 1), το Μάρκετινγκ και την Επικοινωνία ( από το Οικονομικό Πανεπιστήμιο ΑθηνώνMSc). Πρόσφατα, είναι στη διαδικασία ολοκλήρωσης Μεταπτυχιακού πάνω στην Μεγιστοποίηση της Αθλητικής Απόδοσης και την Προπονητική (ΔΠΘ). Σήμερα, είναι υποψήφιος Διδάκτωρ στο ΔΠΘ με αντικείμενο την εφαρμοσμένη Φυσιολογία στα αθλήματα αντοχής.

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