Τρίαθλο : Τι είναι; Πως δημιουργήθηκε; Ποιες οι αγωνιστικές αποστάσεις;

Triathlon

Κείμενο : Γιάννης Ψαρέλης (προπονητής Τριάθλου)  -Web- Site : www.triathloncoach.gr – Email : smartsportcoach@hotmail.com & info@triathloncoach.gr -Κινητό : +30 693 71 70 260

Φωτογραφία : Athens Triathlon Team (Η καλύτερη ομάδα Τριάθλου στην Ελλάδα)

Ερωτήματα

  • Τί είναι το Τρίαθλο;
  • Από ποια αθλήματα αποτελείται το Τρίαθλο;
  • Πως δημιουργήθηκε το Τρίαθλο;
  • Πόσο πολύ αναπτύσσεται στο δυτικό κόσμο;
  • Ποιες είναι οι αγωνιστικές αποστάσεις του τριάθλου;
  • Πότε αποφασίστηκε να γίνει Ολυμπιακό  άθλημα;

Τί είναι το τρίαθλο;

Το Τρίαθλο  περιλαμβάνει τα αθλήματα της κολύμβησης, ποδηλασίας και τρεξίματος σε συνεχόμενη ροή, συνήθως με αυτή τη σειρά. Ενδιάμεσα υπάρχουν δύο ζώνες αλλαγών, ο χρόνος ολοκλήρωσης των οποίων προσμετρείται στο γενικό χρόνο και αποτελεί επίσης παράγοντα που επηρεάζει το τελικό αποτέλεσμα.

Πως δημιουργήθηκε το τρίαθλο;

Ενα βασικό ερώτημα είναι πως δημιουργήθηκε και από που προήλθε το τρίαθλο ως ξεχωριστό άθλημα: «Το Τρίαθλο έχει τις ρίζες του στο δίαθλο (τρέξιμο και ποδηλασία) το οποίο εξελίχτηκε σε άθλημα τριών αγωνισμάτων και έχει εξελιχθεί σε ένα παγκόσμιο φαινόμενο. Από την δεκαετία του 1980 το Τρίαθλο έχει γίνει ένα από τα ταχύτερα αναπτυσσόμενα αθλήματα αναψυχής στις ΗΠΑ» (Mora J. 1999).

H εντυπωσιακή ανάπτυξη του Τριάθλου στον δυτικό κόσμο

Οι περισσότερες έρευνες επιβεβαιώνουν ότι το τρίαθλο βρίσκεται στις πρώτες –και σε μερικές χώρες στην πρώτη θέση- θέσεις στις λίστες με τα αθλήματα με την μεγαλύτερη ανάπτυξη αναφορικά με τον αριθμό των αθλητών που το εξασκούν. Ομως το ερώτημα είναι πως έγινε αυτή η εντυπωσιακή ανάπτυξη;

“Αυτό που είναι ενδιαφέρον είναι ότι παρά την φανερή σχέση με τα τρία αθλήματα – δηλαδή κολύμβηση, ποδηλασία και τρέξιμο- το τρίαθλο έχει αναπτυχθεί ανεξάρτητα ως άθλημα. Κατά αυτό τον τρόπο το Τρίαθλο δεν υπόκειται στις ίδιες περιοριστικές πιέσεις και παραδόσεις όπως τα αθλήματα από τα οποία προκύπτει.  Όπως και άλλα αθλήματα το τρίαθλο έχει ένα εύρος οργανισμών οι οποίοι το υποστηρίζουν όπως ταξιδιωτικά γραφεία, χορηγούς, προμηθευτές αθλητικού εξοπλισμού κ.λπ.(Phillips P, Newland B, 2014)

To Τρίαθλο στου Ολυμπαικούς αγώνες

Η ΔΟΕ αποφάσισε να εντάξει το άθλημα στους Ολυμπιακούς αγώνες του 2000 στη σύνοδό της το 1994. Αυτό είχε ως αποτέλεσμα την αύξηση του επιστημονικού ενδιαφέροντος και δημοσιεύσεων. Αγωνιστικά η απόφαση για ένταξη στο Ολυμπιακό πρόγραμμα είχε ως αποτέλεσμα την ένταξη του drafting στην ποδηλασία από το 1995 στην Ολυμπιακή απόσταση και την απόσταση σπριντ καθώς στις μεγαλύτερες αποστάσεις απαγορεύεται (Frohlich et al., 2008)

Οι αγωνιστικές αποστάσεις

Οι αγώνες Τριάθλου γίνονται σε διάφορες αποστάσεις με τις πιο συνηθισμένες να είναι (Bentley 2008) :

  • Σπριντ (κολύμβηση 750 μέτρα – ποδηλασία 20χλμ – τρέξιμο 5χλμ)
  • Ολυμπιακή απόσταση (κολύμβηση 1500 μέτρα – ποδηλασία 10χλμ – τρέξιμο 10χλμ)
  • Half Ironman (κολύμβηση 1900 μέτρα – ποδηλασία 90χλμ – τρέξιμο 21,1χλμ)
  • Ironman (κολύμβηση 1900 μέτρα – ποδηλασία 90χλμ – τρέξιμο 21,1χλμ)

Η Διεθνής Ομοσπονδία Τριάθλου έχει συνήθως στους αγώνες της τις παρακάτω αποστάσεις (στοιχεία 2004)

  1. Κατηγορίες αποστάσεων (Τρίαθλο)
ΚΟΛΥΜΠΙΠΟΔΗΛΑΤΟΤΡΕΞΙΜΟ
ΣΠΡΙΝΤ0,75 ΚΜ20 ΚΜ5 ΚΜ
ΟΛΥΜΠΙΑΚΗ1,50 ΚΜ40 ΚΜ10 ΚΜ
ΜΕΓΑΛΗ3,00 – 4,00 ΚΜ120 – 180 ΚΜ30 – 42,2 ΚΜ
  1. Κατηγορίες αποστάσεων (Δίαθλο)
ΤΡΕΞΙΜΟΠΟΔΗΛΑΤΟΤΡΕΞΙΜΟ
ΔΙΕΘΝΗΣ10 ΚΜ40 ΚΜ5 ΚΜ
ΜΕΓΑΛΗ10 ΚΜ60 ΚΜ10 ΚΜ
  1. Κατηγορίες αποστάσεων (Aquathlon)
ΤΡΕΞΙΜΟΚΟΛΥΜΠΙΤΡΕΞΙΜΟ
ΔΙΕΘΝΗΣ2.5 KM1 KM2.5 KM
ΜΕΓΑΛΗ5 KM2 KM5 KM
  1. Κατηγορίες αποστάσεων (Χειμερινό Τρίαθλο)
ΤΡΕΞΙΜΟMOUNTAIN BIKEX-C SKI
ΔΙΕΘΝΗΣ7 KM15 KM10 KM
ΜΙΚΡΗ3 KM7 KM5 KM
Triathlon Coach
Triathlon Coach

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