Προπονητική Ποδηλασίας : Ποια είναι η βέλτιστη συχνότητα “πεταλαρίσματος” (RPM);

Ποια είναι η βέλτιστη συχνότητα (RPM) στο πεταλάρισμα για εμάς;

Κείμενο .Γιάννης Ψαρέλης. Προπονητική ομάδα smart sport & συντακτική ομάδα TriathlonWorld, CyclingWorld & Triathlonmag. Το άρθρο έχει γραφτεί το 2011 ύστερα από προσωπικές εργομετρικές εξετάσεις.

Στοιχεία Επικοινωνία email: smartsportcoachHotmmail.com) & κινητό 6937170260

Δυστυχώς πολλές φορές ενστερνιζόμαστε απόψεις οι οποίες κυκλοφορούν δίχως να σκεφτούμε καθόλου πάνω σε αυτές. Ετσι τα τελευταία χρόνια υπάρχει η άποψη ότι είναι προτιμότερο να στροφάρεις πολύ. Αυτό έχει ξεκινήσει με την μορφή “μόδας” από τον Lance Armostrong. Αραγε αυτό είναι απόλυτα σωστό;

Ενα από τα βασικά ερωτήματα που έχει ένας αθλητής είναι «με τι στροφές πρέπει να πηγαίνω όταν κάνω αντοχή, όταν χρονομετρώ και όταν ανεβαίνω ανηφόρα”;

Σε συνέχεια αυτού κάποιος επιλέγει και το σωστό πάτημα. Συνήθως οι προπονητές δίνουν οδηγίες στους αθλητές τους λέγοντάς τους με τις στροφές πρέπει να κάνουν τις προπονήσεις του και με τί τον αγώνα. Είναι όμως αυτό σωστό; Υπάρχει μία συγκεκριμένη κατεύθυνση που ισχύει για όλους τους αθλητές;

Δυστυχώς χωρίς να προσβάλλω πολλούς αρθρογράφους, αθλητές αλλά και μερικούς προπονητές που έχω διαβάσει τα άρθρα τους ή έχω μιλήσει (δεν αναφέρομαι μόνο σε Έλληνες αλλά και σε πολλούς ξένους αρθρογράφους), κυρίως από την ποδηλασία ή το Τρίαθλο λένε πράγματα που δεν έχουν λογική βάση και φυσικά δεν υπάρχει κανένα θεωρητικό υπόβαθρο ή ερευνητική δουλειά για να στηρίξουν τις απόψεις τους, παρότι με πολύ σιγουριά εκφράζουν κάποιες απόψεις.

Σε εργομετρική εξέταση (2010 & 2011) που έκανα στο ίδιο εργαστήριο και με το ίδιο πρωτόκολλο μου ζητήθηκε να ποδηλατώ με 90 στροφές το λεπτό.  Στο τεστ στις 25/11 (γαλάζια γραμμή) και 2/3 (κόκκινη γραμμή) διατηρούσα το στροφάρισμα στις 90 στροφές ενώ στις 6/4 (πράσινη γραμμή) προσπάθησα να ποδηλατώ 100 με 110 στροφές, αντίθετα με τις οδηγίες που είχα από το εργαστήριο.

Ας δούμε γιατί το έκανα αυτό και τί ήθελα να δω; Από τις 25/11 στις 2/3 έχει μετατοπιστεί η καμπύλη προς τα κάτω που σημαίνει αύξηση της «ποδηλατικής» οικονομίας;

Ομως γιατί ξαφνικά από 2/3 έως 6/4 η καμπύλη μετατοπίστηκε προς τα πάνω.

Κάποιος θα μπορούσε να πει ότι αυτό είναι άσχημο καθώς δείχνει ότι έχει μειωθεί η οικονομία. Είναι όμως έτσι; Φυσικά και όχι. Οι μελέτες έχουν δείξει ότι με υψηλότερο στροφάρισμα οι σφυγμοί ανεβαίνουν πιο πολύ στις χαμηλές εντάσεις. Ολες οι μελέτες έχουν δείξει  ότι το πιο αποτελεσματικό πεταλάρισμα είναι σε μικρότερη συχνότητα από αυτή που πιστεύουμε (80 με 110 στροφές το λεπτό). Δοκιμάστε να ποδηλατήσετε με μία συγκεκριμένη ταχύτητα (π.χ. 30 χιλιόμετρα την ώρα) και ύστερα δοκιμάστε να διατηρήσετε την ίδια ταχύτητα αυξάνοντας το στροφάρισμα. Θα δείτε ότι οι σφυγμοί αυξάνονται. Ομως τί είναι αυτό που κερδίζει κάποιος από την αύξηση του στροφαρίσματος;

Με βαριά πατήματα/ χαμηλή συχνότητα μπορεί να έχε χαμηλότερους σφυγμούς όμως χρεώνεται περισεότερο μυικά καθώς χρησιμοποιεί τις ίνες ταχείας συστολής και φυσικά η προσλαμβανώμενη κόπωση είναι υψηλότερη.

Ετσι στο παραπάνω τεστ προσπαθώντας βλέπουμε ότι με υψηλότερο στροφάρισμα μπόρεσα να βγάλω και τα 400 watt, τα οποία δεν έβγαζα πριν λόγο μυικής  κυρίως κόπωσης.

Πρακτικές συμβουλές

  1. Οτι και να διαβάζουμε πρέπει να γνωρίζουμε ότι δεν υπάρχουν μαγικές συνταγές που να ισχύουν για όλους και είναι πολύ δύσκολο να στηθεί έρευνα που να μην κάνει λάθος παραδοχές. Ενας προπονητής που σέβεται τον εαυτό του δεν μπορεί να δίνει τις ίδιες οδηγίες σε όλους τους αθλητές του. Για κάθε αθλητή έχουμε ένα FCC (Freely Chosen Cadence) από το οποίο ξεκινάμε να εργαζόμαστε για να το κάνουμε ολοκληρωμένο ποδηλάτη.
  2. Μπορεί να βρεθεί βέλτιστο για κάθε αθλητή ύστερα από αρκετή μελέτη, η οποία όμως οφείλει να είναι εξατομικευμένη.
  3. Στο Τρίαθλο πρέπει να λάβουμε υπόψιν μας ότι ο αθλητής πρέπει να τρέξει ύστερα από την ατομική χρονομέτρηση και συνεπώς πρέπει να συγκεράσουμε δύο αντικρουόμενες παραμέτρους δηλαδή το γεγονός ότι μικρότερη συχνότητα σημαίνει πιο υψηλή αποτελεσματικότητα όμως ταυτόχρονα αυτό συνεπάγεται μεγαλύτερη κόπωση και μεγαλύτερα επίπεδα γαλακτικού οξέος καθώς επιστρατεύονται οι ταχείας συστολής μυικές ίνες, που ως γνωστό προκαλούν μεγαλύτερη συγκέντρωση γαλακτικού οξέος.
  4. Ανάλογα με την μορφή του αγώνα Τριάθλου μπορούμε να χρησιμοποιήσουμε διαφορετική στρατηγική στροφαρίσματος. Δηλαδή είναι σαφές ότι όσο μεγαλώνει η διάρκεια θα πρέπει να σκεφτόμαστε περισσότερο την οικονομία σε σχέση με την αποτελεσματικότητα και να στροφάρουμε περισσότερο
  5. Ενας πολύ καλά προπονημένος αθλητής έχει κάνει πολύ καλές καρδιοαναπνευστικές προσαρμογές και συνεπώς μπορεί να δουλεύει σε υψηλές καρδιακές συχνότητες και το κατώφλι του είναι σε υψηλό ποσοστό της μέγιστης καρδιακής του συχνότητας. Συνεπώς είναι λογικό να έχει ως στρατηγική να δουλεύει με υψηλότερη συχνότητα. Αθλητής με πολύ δύναμη πρέπει να έχει ως στρατηγική τις χαμηλές στροφές ενώ αθλητή με πολύ καλή αερόβια κατάσταση πρέπει να διαλέγει υψηλή συχνότητας στροφαρίσματος.
  6. Δεν υπάρχει τόσο αντιφατική βιβλιογραφία όσο αναφορικά με το στροφάρισμα.

O Γιάννης Ψαρέλης γεννήθηκε το 1969 στην Αθήνα. Από το 1978 ασχολείται με τον αθλητισμό. Είναι αναγνωρισμένος προπονητής τριάθλου από την Ironman και Level 3 προπονητής τριάθλου από την εθνική Ομοσπονδία της Νεας Ζηλανδίας (με το καλύτερο σύστημα διαβίου εκπαίδευσης προπονητών), πιστοποιημένος δάσκαλος κολύμβησης (Teacher ID: 15843) από τον Σύνδεσμο Προπονητών Κολύμβησης της Αυστραλίας καθώς και Αργυρού Επιπέδου Διεθνής προπονητής από τον ίδιο σύνδεσμο (ASCTA International Silver :0534). Επίσης, είναι πιστοποιημένος προπονητής κολύμβησης από τον Σύνδεσμο Προπονητών κολύμβησης των ΗΠΑ επιπέδου 4:5 (ASCA Level 4:5). Συνολικά έχει συμμετάσχει σε περισσότερους από 200 αγώνες τριάθλου και multistports και σε περισσότερους από 150 αγώνες τρεξίματος εκτός σταδίου. Έχει διατελέσει μέλος της Ολομέλειας της Ελληνικής Ολυμπιακής Επιτροπής, Διοικητικός Διευθυντής στην Διεθνή Ολυμπιακή Ακαδημία, Γενικός Γραμματέας στην Ελληνική Ομοσπονδία Τριάθλου, Διευθυντής Αθλήματος στην ΟΕΟΑ Αθήνα 2004 κ.λπ. Έχει επίσης εμπνευστεί και διατελέσει Αθλητικός Διευθυντής του Κέντρου Υψηλού Αθλητισμού (Sports Excellence). Σπουδές: Χημεία (ΕΚΠΑ), ΜΒΑ (ΟΠΑ), Μεταπτυχιακό στην Αθλητική Διοίκηση (MSc,Lyon 1), το Μάρκετινγκ και την Επικοινωνία ( από το Οικονομικό Πανεπιστήμιο ΑθηνώνMSc). Πρόσφατα, είναι στη διαδικασία ολοκλήρωσης Μεταπτυχιακού πάνω στην Μεγιστοποίηση της Αθλητικής Απόδοσης και την Προπονητική (ΔΠΘ). Σήμερα, είναι υποψήφιος Διδάκτωρ στο ΔΠΘ με αντικείμενο την εφαρμοσμένη Φυσιολογία στα αθλήματα αντοχής.

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